What is a Test Plan?
A Test Plan is a document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks and who will do each task (roles and responsibilities) and any risks and its solutions.
What is Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC)?
The testing of software has its own life cycle. It starts with study and analyzing the requirements. Here is the software testing life cycle:
- Requirement Study
- Test Planning
- Writing Test Cases
- Review the Test Cases
- Executing the Test Cases
- Bug logging and tracking
- Close or Reopen bugs
What is meant by the Build Deployment?
When the Build so prepared by the CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT TEAM is sent to different Test Environments, it is called the Build Deployment.
What is Test Strategy?
A test strategy is an outline that describes the testing portion of the software development cycle. It is created to inform project managers, testers, and developers about some key issues of the testing process. This includes the testing objective, methods of testing new functions, total time and resources required for the project, and the testing environment.
The test strategy is created based on development design documents.. It is written by the Test Manager or Lead. It includes introduction, scope, resource and schedule for test activities, acceptance criteria, test environment, test tools, test priorities, test planning, executing a test pass and types of test to be performed.
The following are some of the components that the Test Strategy includes:
1 Test Levels.
2 Roles and Responsibilities.
3 Environment Requirements.
4 Testing Tools.
5 Risks and Mitigation.
6 Test Schedule.
7 Regression Test Approach.
8 Test Groups.
9 Test Priorities.
10 Test Status Collections and Reporting.
11 Test Records Maintenance.
12 Requirements traceability matrix.
13 Test Summary
Are Test Plan and Test Strategy same type of document?
Test Plan is a document that collects and organizes test cases by functional areas and/or types of testing in a form that can be presented to the other teams and/or customer where as the Test Strategy is the documented approach to testing.
What is Negative Testing?
Testing the system or application using negative data is called negative testing, for example, testing password entering 6 characters where it should be 8 characters should display a message.
What is the difference between Load Testing and Performance Testing?
Load testing is the test to check the users’ response time of number of users of any one scenario of the application whereas Performance Testing is the test to check the user response time for multiple scenario of the same application.
- Structured Query Language. Database is a collection of logically related data designed in a tabular form to meet the information needs of one or more users.
What is Change Control
What is XML?
-XML stands for EXtensible Markup Language.
How do you make sure that it is quality software?
There should no critical defects (0 critical), no high defect (0 high), no medium defect (0 medium) and may be 1 low defect
How would you ensure that you have covered 100% testing?
The testing coverage is defined by exit criteria (There is exit criteria and entry criteria in the Test Strategy). For example – only 2 low defects are acceptable. Once the exit criteria meet the requirements, then the software is considered to be sufficiently tested.
What are all the basic elements in a defect report?
The basic elements in a defect report are: Defect ID, Header, Description, Defect Reported by, Date, Status, Version, Assigned to, Approved by, Module where the defect was found and so on.
What is the difference between verification and validation?
Verification: Verification is a process to ensure that the software that is made, matches the original design. It is to check whether you built the product right as per design.
Validation: Validation is a process to check whether the product design fits the client’s need. It checks whether you built the right thing. It checks whether it is designed properly.
What are the types of test cases that you write?
We write test cases for smoke testing, integration testing, functional testing, regression testing, load testing, stress testing, system testing and so on.
How to write Integration test cases?
When we do the functional testing, the integration testing is automatically done. This is my experience.
How to write Regression test cases? What are the criteria?
Regression test cases are also based on the requirement documents.
What is Test Harness?
In software testing, a test harness or automated test framework is a collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions and monitor its behavior and outputs. It has two main parts: the test execution engine and the test script repository.
What are the different matrices that you follow?
There are various reports we normally prepare in QA:
· Test summary Report – It is a report that has list of the total test cases, list of executed test cases, remaining test case to be executed, executed date, pass/fail
· Defect Report – In this report we normally prepare a list of defect in spreadsheet e.g. defect # CQ12345 [ if you log a defect in the application called Rational ClearQuest]
· Traceability Matrix
What is parallel/audit testing?
Parallel/audit testing is testing where the user reconciles the output of the new system to the output of the current system to verify the new system performs the operations correctly.
What is software testing methodology?
One software testing methodology is the use a three step process of…
1. Creating a test strategy;
2. Creating a test plan/design; and
3. Executing tests. This methodology can be used and molded to your organization’s needs. Rob Davis believes that using this methodology is important in the development and in ongoing maintenance of his customers’ applications.
What is the general testing process?
The general testing process is the creation of a test strategy (which sometimes includes the creation of test cases), creation of a test plan/design (which usually includes test cases and test procedures) and the execution of tests.
How do you create a test strategy?
The test strategy is a formal description of how a software product will be tested. A test strategy is developed for all levels of testing, as required. The test team analyzes the requirements, writes the test strategy and reviews the plan with the project team. The test plan may include test cases, conditions, the test environment, a list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria and risk assessment. Inputs for this process:
· A description of the required hardware and software components, including test tools. This information comes from the test environment, including test tool data.
· A description of roles and responsibilities of the resources required for the test and schedule constraints. This information comes from man-hours and schedules.
· Testing methodology. This is based on known standards.
· Functional and technical requirements of the application. This information comes from requirements, change request, technical and functional design documents.
· Requirements that the system can not provide, e.g. system limitations. Outputs for this process:
· An approved and signed off test strategy document, test plan, including test cases.
· Testing issues requiring resolution. Usually this requires additional negotiation at the project management level.
How do you create a test plan/design?
Test scenarios and/or cases are prepared by reviewing functional requirements of the release and preparing logical groups of functions that can be further broken into test procedures. Test procedures define test conditions, data to be used for testing and expected results, including database updates, file outputs, report results. Generally speaking…
Test cases and scenarios are designed to represent both typical and unusual situations that may occur in the application.
Test engineers define unit test requirements and unit test cases. Test engineers also execute unit test cases.
It is the test team that, with assistance of developers and clients, develops test cases and scenarios for integration and system testing.
Test scenarios are executed through the use of test procedures or scripts.
Test procedures or scripts define a series of steps necessary to perform one or more test scenarios.
Test procedures or scripts include the specific data that will be used for testing the process or transaction.
Test procedures or scripts may cover multiple test scenarios.
Test scripts are mapped back to the requirements and traceability matrices are used to ensure each test is within scope.
Test data is captured and base lined, prior to testing. This data serves as the foundation for unit and system testing and used to exercise system functionality in a controlled environment.
Some output data is also base-lined for future comparison. Base-lined data is used to support future application maintenance via regression testing.
A pretest meeting is held to assess the readiness of the application and the environment and data to be tested. A test readiness document is created to indicate the status of the entrance criteria of the release.
Inputs for this process:
Approved Test Strategy Document.
Test tools, or automated test tools, if applicable.
Previously developed scripts, if applicable.
Test documentation problems uncovered as a result of testing.
A good understanding of software complexity and module path coverage, derived from general and detailed design documents, e.g. software design document, source code and software complexity data.
Outputs for this process:
Approved documents of test scenarios, test cases, test conditions and test data.
Reports of software design issues, given to software developers for correction.
How do you execute tests?
Execution of tests is completed by following the test documents in a methodical manner. As each test procedure is performed, an entry is recorded in a test execution log to note the execution of the procedure and whether or not the test procedure uncovered any defects. Checkpoint meetings are held throughout the execution phase. Checkpoint meetings are held daily, if required, to address and discuss testing issues, status and activities.The output from the execution of test procedures is known as test results. Test results are evaluated by test engineers to determine whether the expected results have been obtained. All discrepancies/anomalies are logged and discussed with the software team lead, hardware test lead, programmers, software engineers and documented for further investigation and resolution. Every company has a different process for logging and reporting bugs/defects uncovered during testing.A pass/fail criteria is used to determine the severity of a problem, and results are recorded in a test summary report. The severity of a problem, found during system testing, is defined in accordance to the customer’s risk assessment and recorded in their selected tracking tool.Proposed fixes are delivered to the testing environment, based on the severity of the problem. Fixes are regression tested and flawless fixes are migrated to a new baseline. Following completion of the test, members of the test team prepare a summary report. The summary report is reviewed by the Project Manager, Software QA Manager and/or Test Team Lead.
After a particular level of testing has been certified, it is the responsibility of the Configuration Manager to coordinate the migration of the release software components to the next test level, as documented in the Configuration Management Plan. The software is only migrated to the production environment after the Project Manager’s formal acceptance.
How do you divide the application into different sections to create scripts?
First of all, the application is divided in different parts when a business analyst writes the requirement document (or Use Cases or Design Document), he/she writes EACH requirement document for EACH module
What is a ‘Show Stopper’?
A show stopper is a defect or bug that stops the user for further action (testing). It has no work around.